Design Issues of Buried Pipelines at Permanent Ground Deformation Zones
This paper provides an overview of earthquake response of buried pipes subjected to permanent ground deformation hazards. Observed damage at segmented and continuous buried pipes, typical failure modes for segmented and continuous pipes, numerical modeling and provisions for design and analysis of welded steel pipelines are covered. Both simplified and 3D continuum finite element models are presented to estimate the response of soil-pipe interaction models to fault offsets. Effects of soil and pipe properties, fault crossing angles and possible measures for the earthquake risk mitigation in pipelines are summarized.